In areas approaching malaria elimination, human mobility patterns are important in determining the proportion of malaria cases that are imported or the result of low-level, endemic transmission. A convenience sample of participants enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study in the catchment area of Macha Hospital in Choma District, Southern Province, Zambia, was selected to carry a GPS data logger for one month from October 2013 to August 2014. Density maps and activity space plots were created to evaluate seasonal movement patterns. Time spent outside the household compound during anopheline biting times, and time spent in malaria high- and low-risk areas, were calculated.
In Nchelenge, the co-existence of two highly anthropophagic vectors, present throughout the year, is likely to be driving the high malaria transmission evident in the district. The vectors here have been shown to be highly resistant to pyrethroids used for IRS during the study. Vector control interventions in this area would have to be multifaceted and district-wide for effective control of malaria.
Author: Chaponda M, Chilusu H, Coetzee M, Curriero FC, Jones CM, Lupiya J, Mbewe D, Muleba M, Mulenga M, Mwelwa I, Norris DE, Pinchoff J, Pringle JC, Shields T, Simubali L, Stevenson JC
Publication date: September 2016
Source: Parasites & Vectors
Malaria risk maps may be used to guide policy decisions on whether vector control interventions should be targeted and, if so, where. Active surveillance for malaria was conducted through household surveys in Nchelenge District, Zambia from April 2012 through December 2014. The final, validated model was used to predict and map malaria risk including a measure of risk uncertainty. Malaria risk in a high, perennial transmission setting is widespread but heterogeneous at a local scale, with seasonal variation. Targeting malaria control interventions may not be appropriate in this epidemiological setting.