Cross-border malaria transmission is an important problem for national malaria control programs. The epidemiology of cross-border malaria is further complicated in areas where Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are both endemic. By combining passive case detection data with entomological data, a transmission scenario on the northwestern Thai–Myanmar border where P. falciparum is likely driven by importation was described, whereas P. vivax is also locally transmitted. This study highlights the differences in the level of control required to eliminate P. falciparum and P. vivax from the same region.
Signals of natural selection suggest that P. vivax is evolving in response to antimalarial drugs and is adapting to regional differences in the human host and the mosquito vector.
Author: Arévalo-Herrera M, Barnadas C, Barry A, Beldeviano GC, Cui L, Durand S, Eapen A, Escalante A, Fan Q, Herrera S, Hupalo DN, Kanagarai D, Kazura JW, Laman M, Lescano AG, Lucas CM, Luo Z, Melnikov A, Mueller I, Rogov P, Sanchez JF, Sutton PL, Valecha N, Vallejo AF, Wang Y
Publication date: June 2016
Source: Nature Genetics
Papua New Guinea exhibits a complex malaria epidemiology due to diversity in malaria parasites, mosquito vectors, human hosts, and their natural environment. Heterogeneities in transmission and burden of malaria at various scales are likely to affect the success of malaria control interventions, and vice-versa. This manuscript assesses changes in malaria prevalence, incidence and transmission in sentinel sites following the first national distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs).