In areas approaching malaria elimination, human mobility patterns are important in determining the proportion of malaria cases that are imported or the result of low-level, endemic transmission. A convenience sample of participants enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study in the catchment area of Macha Hospital in Choma District, Southern Province, Zambia, was selected to carry a GPS data logger for one month from October 2013 to August 2014. Density maps and activity space plots were created to evaluate seasonal movement patterns. Time spent outside the household compound during anopheline biting times, and time spent in malaria high- and low-risk areas, were calculated.
This study used consensus modeling to understand how to optimize the effects of mass drug administration in areas with low malaria transmission.
Author: Aguas R, Brady OJ, Chitnis N, Gerardin J, Ghani AC, Hay SI, Maude RJ, Okell LC, Okiro EA, Pemberton-Ross P, Penny MA, Slater HC, Smith DL, Smith TA, stuckey em, Wenger E, White LJ
Publication date: May 2017
Source: The Lancet Global Health
This analysis of existing data and literature on imported malaria cases points to historical and geographical patterns between non-endemic countries and malarious neighboring nations. Such patterns will prove significant in strategizing for malaria elimination and eradication.
This paper focuses on quantifying the international movements of malaria to improve understanding of these phenomena and facilitate the design of mitigation strategies.
By linking transmission to parasite flow [via human mobility], it is possible to stratify landscapes for malaria control and elimination as [malaria parasite] sources are disproportionately important to the regional persistence of malaria parasites. [This study] examined how the landscape of transmission and burden changed from the pre-elimination setting by comparing the location and extent of predicted pre-elimination transmission foci with modeled incidence for 2009.
Indicators relating to socio-economic improvements were strongly correlated with the decline of malaria in Europe, whereas those describing climatic and land use changes showed weaker relationships. Present-day malaria-elimination countries have now arrived at similar socio-economic indicator levels as European countries at the time malaria elimination was achieved, offering hope for achievement of sustainable elimination.
Malaria, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis, and dengue are prime candidates for combined vector control. All four of these diseases overlap considerably in their distributions and there is a growing body of evidence for the effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets, screens, and curtains for controlling all of their vectors. The real-world effectiveness of cross-disease vector control programmes can only be evaluated by large-scale trials, but there is clear evidence of the potential of such an approach to enable greater overall health benefit using the limited funds available.
When coverage of effective treatment is taken into account, higher country level estimates of average EIR and thus higher disease burden, are obtained for a given prevalence level, especially where access to treatment is high, and prevalence relatively low. These methods provide a unified framework for comparison of both the immediate and longer-term impacts of case management and of preventive interventions.
This article, published in Nature found that Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence in endemic Africa halved and the incidence of clinical disease fell by 40% between 2000 and 2015. Interventions have averted an estimated 663 (542–753 credible interval) million clinical cases since 2000. Insecticide-treated nets, the most widespread intervention, were by far the largest contributor (68% of cases averted).
Author: Battle KE, Bennett A, Bhatt S, Bisanzio D, Briet O, Cameron E, Cibulskis RE, Cohen JM, Dalrymple U, Eckhoff P, Eisele TP, Fergus CA, Gething PW, Griffin JT, Hay SI, Henry A, Lindgren F, Lynch M, Mappin B, Moyes CL, Murray CLJ, Penny MA, Smith DL, Smith TA, Weiss J, Wenger E, Yukich J
Publication date: September 2015
National census data for Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda were analysed to highlight patterns in cross-border migration by mapping significant origin-specific immigrant ‘hotspots’ and sub-national areas that should consider collaborating on control and elimination strategies with neighbouring countries. The outcomes of this study will feed into wider efforts to quantify and model human and malaria movements in endemic regions to facilitate improved intervention planning, resource allocation and collaborative policy decisions.