Malaria may be subject to socio-economic forces arising from a broad set of behavioural and geographic determinants, even after adjusting for geographic risk factors and seasonality. Nearly 21 % of the sample lacked primary schooling. To improve malaria reduction efforts, broad-based interventions may need to attack inequalities to ensure that knowledge, prevention and treatment are improved among those who are most vulnerable.
This article, published in Nature found that Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence in endemic Africa halved and the incidence of clinical disease fell by 40% between 2000 and 2015. Interventions have averted an estimated 663 (542–753 credible interval) million clinical cases since 2000. Insecticide-treated nets, the most widespread intervention, were by far the largest contributor (68% of cases averted).
Author: Battle KE, Bennett A, Bhatt S, Bisanzio D, Briet O, Cameron E, Cibulskis RE, Cohen JM, Dalrymple U, Eckhoff P, Eisele TP, Fergus CA, Gething PW, Griffin JT, Hay SI, Henry A, Lindgren F, Lynch M, Mappin B, Moyes CL, Murray CLJ, Penny MA, Smith DL, Smith TA, Weiss J, Wenger E, Yukich J
Publication date: September 2015
The primary aim of this study is to quantify the relative effectiveness of MDA and fMDA with DHAp against no mass treatment (standard of care) for reducing Plasmodium falciparum prevalence and incidence. Strengths of this trial include: a robust study design (CRCT); cross-sectional parasite surveys as well as a longitudinal cohort; and stratification of high and low transmission areas. Primary limitations include: statistical power to detect only a 50 % reduction in primary outcomes within high and low transmission strata; potential for contamination; and potential for misclassification of exposure.
When improved through comprehensive parasitologically confirmed case reporting, HMIS data can become a valuable tool for evaluating malaria program scale-up. Using this approach, this article provides further evidence that increased ITN coverage is associated with decreased malaria morbidity and use of health services for malaria illness in Zambia.
Author: Bennett A, Eisele TP, Hamainza B, Ingwe MM, Kamuliwo M, Keating J, Miller JM, Moonga HB, Smith TA, Steketee R, Vounatsou P, Yukich J
Publication date: November 2014
Source: Population health metrics
A report on rapid diagnostic test use, drug consumption, and diagnostic results from data collected in three Zambian health districts to determine the impact RDTs had on malaria case management over the period 2004–2009.