Following initiation of China’s National Malaria Elimination Action Plan in 2010, indigenous malaria infections in Jiangsu Province decreased significantly. Meanwhile imported Plasmodium infections have increased substantially, particularly Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae. Given the risk for malaria resurgence, there is an urgent need to understand the increase in imported P. ovale and P. malariae infections as China works to achieve national malaria elimination.
China launched its malaria elimination program in July 2010 with a plan to achieve elimination by 2020. Malaria cases (local and imported) have been reduced from more than 26,000 in 2008 to 2,716 in 2012, of which only 243 were due to local transmission. Plasmodium falciparum has been almost eliminated (only 16 cases of falciparum malaria in 2012, along the China–Myanmar border). This success has been driven by a focused program delivering and monitoring targeted interventions to those at risk, including a RACD program that is described by “1-3-7.”